In developing countries, many tons of valuable nutrients (mainly Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P)) are lost as waste derived from daily life and agriculture. Nutrient load qualification is an early step for recognizing environmental pollution and a basic requirement for planning environmental sanitation options. Material Flow Analysis (MFA) has been used in the environmental sector in many cities of developing countries. In Mandalay, under rapid urbanization, environmental problems have risen to an alarming level.

In this study, a nitrogen and phosphorous flow model was developed with a focus on organic waste. The system boundary was five urban townships of Mandalay city and components included in the system were agriculture, livestock, industry, and household. Household surveys, and farmers, livestock owners and industry manager interviews were conducted along with collecting secondary data to develop the model.

Acknowledgment- This study was carried out by Wutyi Naing from the Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University.