This study seeks to understand water usage patterns in Mandalay and to assess the possibility of and the extent to which current water tariffs can be increased or reconfigured. 


The researchers used a combination of in-depth interviews and a survey covering 1480 households and MSMEs across six townships in Mandalay. 


Additionally, this study analysed unique administrative data from the Mandalay City Development Committee to assess the impact of past tariff changes on consumption and revenue.


The findings suggest that due to the widespread access to sources of substitution for water in Mandalay, further increases of the tariff rate are expected to reduce piped-water consumption and have a limited impact on Mandalay's revenue. 


The authors recommend decreasing operational expenditure by assessing and reducing Non-Revenue Water, raising water revenue by increasing tariff levels for households up to 385 MMK per unit, and accounting for additional critical costs such as debt servicing.

This study project was funded by IGC Myanmar.