Drumstick tree is the cosmopolitan tropical, drought-tolerant tree available throughout the year (Shan, T.C., Matar, M.A., Makky, E.A. 2017). Almost every part of the plant (leaves, flowers, seeds, roots and bark) can be used as food or with medicinal and therapeutic purposes, especially in developing countries. Drumstick was first noticed as a coagulant to clear the turbid Nile water in Sudan (Jahn, S.A.A. 1984; Jahn, S.A.A. 1988). The powdered seed of drumstick has coagulating properties that have been used for various aspects of water and wastewater treatment.
The coagulant activity of drumstick seeds is widely known and applied in water treatment at the household level in rural areas of developing countries. Firstly, the drumstick seeds are harvested from the fully matured plant, dried until they become fragile and crushed to become a powder. Put the seed powder into the container containing turbid water and stir thoroughly. Generally, 25-50 mg of seed powder is suitable for one liter of water (source). Leave the water undisturbed for a few hours and after all, the turbid water can be found clear and more aesthetic to use.
This method can also help to remove dirt, solid particles and even some bacteria and fungi. However, the water was almost never completely free of germs. In some cases, drumstick seed is mixed with some chemicals for better result.
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- Bina B, Mehdinejad MH, Gunnel D et al (2010) Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera coagulant protein as natural coagulant aid in removal of turbidity and bacteria from turbid waters. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 4:7–28
- Ali, Eman & Muyibi, Suleyman & Salleh, Hamzah, (2009), MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AS NATURAL COAGULANT FOR WATER TREATMENT.
- Jahn, S.A.A. (1984). "Effectiveness of Traditional Flocculants as Primary Coagulants and Coagulant aids for the Treatment of Tropical Waters with more than a Thousand Fold Flocculation in Turbidity". Water Supply. Vol. 2 (3/4) Special Subject, No. 6, pp. 8-10.
- Shan, T.C., Matar, M.A., Makky, E.A. et al. The use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural coagulant for wastewater treatment and heavy metals removal. Appl Water Sci 7, 1369–1376 (2017)