07 MAR 2020 - Most of the surface water (rivers, lakes, streams, etc.) normally have turbidity to some extent. In Myanmar, people who live near these sources generally use surface water for domestic and even drinking purposes. Instead of using the turbid water directly, clarifying it with some kind of coagulants makes the water more clear and removes the impurities in it.

A coagulant is an organic or inorganic substance that aggregates dissolved containments and tiny particles into larger particles make them settle down and gives clear water. Coagulants are used for water and wastewater treatment and alum (aluminum sulfate), polymer and PAC (Poly Aluminum Chloride) are widely used inorganic coagulants. Although these coagulants are effective for clarifying water, these are inorganic, hazardous, difficult to handle and expensive, thus, only suitable for industrial use. For domestic purpose, there are some natural coagulants, which can be found easily and have great efficiency.Moringa oleifera (drumstick) is one of the best options among them, and it is also available throughout the region.

Drumstick tree is the cosmopolitan tropical, drought-tolerant tree available throughout the year (Shan, T.C., Matar, M.A., Makky, E.A. 2017). Almost every part of the plant (leaves, flowers, seeds, roots and bark) can be used as food or with medicinal and therapeutic purposes, especially in developing countries. Drumstick was first noticed as a coagulant to clear the turbid Nile water in Sudan (Jahn, S.A.A. 1984; Jahn, S.A.A. 1988). The powdered seed of drumstick has coagulating properties that have been used for various aspects of water and wastewater treatment.

The coagulant activity of drumstick seeds is widely known and applied in water treatment at the household level in rural areas of developing countries. Firstly, the drumstick seeds are harvested from the fully matured plant, dried until they become fragile and crushed to become a powder. Put the seed powder into the container containing turbid water and stir thoroughly. Generally, 25-50 mg of seed powder is suitable for one liter of water (source). Leave the water undisturbed for a few hours and after all, the turbid water can be found clear and more aesthetic to use.

Process of Coagulation (source: www.intechopen.com)

This method can also help to remove dirt, solid particles and even some bacteria and fungi. However, the water was almost never completely free of germs. In some cases, drumstick seed is mixed with some chemicals for better result.

Similar researches

  1. Alo MN, Anyim C, Elom M (2012) Coagulation and antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera seed storage at 3 °C temperature in turbid water. Adv Appl Sci Res 3:887–894
  2. Arafat MG, Mohamed SO (2013) Preliminary study on efficacy of leaves, seeds and bark extracts of Moringa oleifera in reducing bacterial load in water. Int J Adv Res 1:124–130
  3. Bina B, Mehdinejad MH, Gunnel D et al (2010) Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera coagulant protein as natural coagulant aid in removal of turbidity and bacteria from turbid waters. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 4:7–28


  • [1]Ali, Eman & Muyibi, Suleyman & Salleh, Hamzah, (2009), MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AS NATURAL COAGULANT FOR WATER TREATMENT.
  • [2]Jahn, S.A.A. (1984). "Effectiveness of Traditional Flocculants as Primary Coagulants and Coagulant aids for the Treatment of Tropical Waters with more than a Thousand Fold Flocculation in Turbidity". Water Supply. Vol. 2 (3/4) Special Subject, No. 6, pp. 8-10.
  • [3]Shan, T.C., Matar, M.A., Makky, E.A. et al. The use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural coagulant for wastewater treatment and heavy metals removal. Appl Water Sci 7, 1369–1376 (2017)